1206 Papal legate
Pierre de Castlenau sent to Toulouse and instructed Raymond IV to fight
again the Cathars. He refused to wage war on his own
1207 Raymond IV was
excommunicated and Pierre of Castlenau assassinated leaving
Toulouse. The Pope Innocent III called a crusade and offered
indulgences and Cathar property as a reward.
1209 The Crusader army
arrived at Lyon led by Simon de Montfort. Raymond IV sought the
the crusaders laid siege to Beziers
. A counter attack by the defenders proved
to be a disaster and the town was over run. The whole populace was
massacred, perhaps 20 000 people, including those sheltering in Churches,
and the town razed. When the Papal legate Arnaud-Armaury was asked
how the soldiers were to differentiate between Cathars and Catholics and
"Caedite eos. Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius." -
Kill them all. God will know His own.
1 August the crusaders arrived at
. The town had excellent
defences, but relied on the river for it's water supply, when this was
isolated from them disease spread and they were forced to surrender.
No massacre occurred, but the population was forced to leave with
1210 Bram captured and
100 captives forced to leave having been blinded and with their lips and
noses cut off.
besieged and captured, around 140 Cathars burned at the
1211 Thermes captured after
running out of water despite some daring attempts to harass the
surrendered with a fight.
Lavaur captured, the knights hanged and around 300 Cathars burned at the
Casses captured, about 50 Cathars burned at the stake.
Montferrand surrenders to the crusaders
Toulouse besieged, but Simon de Montfort withdrew his
counter attack by Raymond IV of Toulouse against de Montfort's forces at
Castlenaudary was defeated.
1212 Various raids made
reinforced by Pedro of Aragon. Pedro besieged de Montfort's army at
Muret but was killed and de Montfort secured a significant
1214 Raymond IV sought
safety in England.
Phillipe II of France defeated both his German and English
De Montfort moved to secure the
Dordogne capturing Domme
and some minor
1215 Toulouse taken and
given to de Montfort. Castlenaud was captured by Cathars, but
recaptured by the crusaders.
1216 Toulouse revolted,
but was suppressed.
1217 Toulouse captured
in de Montfort absence by forces from Aragon.
1218 Simon de Montfort
besieged Toulouse, during the siege he was killed by a stone fired from a
trebuchet (a type of stone throwing machine).
1219 Marmande captured
and around 5000 people massacred, siege of Toulouse started and
recaptured, Simon de Montfort's son Guy killed.
recaptured. Pro-Cathar leaders gained greater control over the
1223 Louis VIII takes
the throne of France.
retaken and Amaury de Montfort retreated with the remains of his father
1225 Raymond VII of
1226 Louis VIII
led a new crusade into Languedoc, several towns and castles
surrendered to him. Avignon and Carcassonne
surrendered. Louis VIII died.
1227 Labacede besieged,
captured and the populace massacred.
1228 Guy, brother to
Simon de Montfort killed besieging Vareilles.
1229 Raymond VII
surrenders, agrees to destroy Toulouse's defences and join anti Cathar
crusade. Inquisition established in Toulouse
Inquisition tortured and burnt suspected Cathars, rebellions against the
brutality in Carcassonne, Narbonne
, Cordes, Albi and
1240 Revolt led
by Raymond-Roger IV de Trencavel, but forced to withdraw to
1242 Rebellion led by
Raymond VII of Toulouse.
VII surrendered to the French King Louis IX. Raymond
a major Cathar stronghold
about 9 months of siege, Montsegur
surrendered. Around 220 Cathars burned at
1255 Queribus , the last
remaining fortress in Cathar hands captured.
1321 The last
recorded Cathar parfait in Languedoc, William Belebaste, was burnt
at the stake outside of Villerouge-Termenez
in 1321 after being taken by
the Holy Inquisition.